russia

 

BY NATHAN HOPKINS


Population:  140,041,247

Land Area:  16,995,800 square kilometers

Environmental Problems:

•Air Pollution from heavy industry

•Emissions from coal-fired electric plants and transportation in major cities

•Industrial, municipal, and agricultural pollution of inland waterways and seacoasts

•Deforestation

•Soil erosion

•Soil contamination from improper application of agricultural chemicals

•Scattered areas of sometimes intense radioactive contamination

•Groundwater contamination from toxic waste

•Urban solid waste management

•Abandoned stocks of obsolete pesticides

Ranking on 2008 Environmental Performance Index:  28th (83.9)

Political Freedom Ranking:  (www.freedomhouse.org)

•Political Rights:  6

•Civil Liberties:  5

Environmental Laws: 

•Law on Environmental Protection (1991)

•About Special Protected Nature Areas (1995)

Constitution:

Government Agencies with Environmental Protection Responsibilities: 

•Ministry of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation

•The Federal Subsoil Resources Management Agency

•The Federal Water Resources Agency

•The Federal Supervisory Natural Resources Management Service

Protected Areas:  Russia has 98 Zapovedniki, or nature reserves, and 32 national parks, which together cover 91 million acres, which is slightly less than 2% of the total land area.

International Environmental Treaties:  Russia is a signatory on 13 international environmental agreements and a party to 150 agreements, which include:

•Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species (1973)

•United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (1982)

•International Tropical Timber Agreement (1983)

•Montreal Protocol (1987)

•Convention on Biological Diversity (1992)

•United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992)

•Kyoto Protocol (1997, signatory)


ENERGY PROFILE

Energy Sources

•Coal:  320 million short tons produced, 258 million short tons consumed (2005, net exporter)

•Natural Gas:  23.17 trillion cubic feet produced, 16.6 trillion cubic feet consumed (2006, net exporter)

•Oil:  9,800 thousand barrels per day produced, 2,800 barrels per day consumed (2007, net exporter)

•Percentage of Total Energy Consumption (2004):  Natural Gas (55%), Oil (19%), Coal (16%), Hydroelectricity (6%), Nuclear (5%), Other Renewables (0%)

Greenhouse Gas Emissions 

•1,696 million metric tons of CO2 (2005)


Sources for Further Information:

•Ministry of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation, http://www.mnr.gov.ru/part/?pid=398

•Kris Wernstedt, Environmental Management in the Russian Federation: A Next Generation Enigma, Resources for the Future, Jan. 2002, http://www.rff.org/rff/documents/rff-dp-02-04.pdf.

•Energy Information Administration, Russia, http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/Russia/Profile.html

•Environmental Treaties and Resource Indicators, http://sedac.ciesin.org/entri/countryProfile.jsp?ISO=RUS