tanzania

 

by elizabeth ryan


POPULATION: 36,232,074

*Population estimates reflect AIDS-impacted high mortality levels

http://www.tanserve.com/facts/index_files/background.htm

43 million people projected in 2010 by Tanzania Population Planning Unit (PPU); last census in 2002 http://www.tanzania.go.tz/ppu/demografic_situation.html

LAND AREA: 945,087 square kilometers 

*59,050 sq km=islands

http://www.tanserve.com/facts/index_files/background.htm

PRINCIPAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS:

Deforestation, soil loss and desertification, offshore reef destruction, use of pesticides, poaching.

http://www.tanserve.com/facts/index_files/enviroment.htm

http://www.tanserve.com/facts/index_files/background.htm

RANKING ON 2008 ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE INDEX: 113th (63.9)

http://epi.yale.edu/CountryScores

POLITICAL FREEDOM RANKING (wwww.freedomhoouse.org): Press - 102 (Partly Free) / Civil Liberties Score – 3 (Partly Free)


PRINCIPAL NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS AND POLICIES

Water Utilization (Control and Regulation) Act, 1974, amended 1981 and 1989 – water use conditions/water policy set at national level

National Plan for Agenda 21, 1993

National Environmental Action Plan, 1994

Coastal Biodiversity Conservation Strategy, 1995

Country Program to phase out ozone depleting substances, 1996

National Environmental Policy 1997 - natural resources protection, degraded areas improvement, sustainable development, individual and community environmental action, international cooperation

National Action Plan on Climate Change, 1997

National Land Policy, 1997

National Forest Policy, 1998 – sustainable forest development; conservation and management of national forest resources

The Wildlife Policy of Tanzania, 1998 – prohibits livestock grazing in game reserves

National Action Program to Combat Desertification, 1999

Land Act 1999 and Village Land Act 1999 - land management/dispute settlement law 

National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, 2000

National Water Policy, 2002

Environmental Management Act, 2004 – sustainable development around protected areas: environmental impact assessment and ecosystem conservation

Development Vision 2025 - local communities and business entities responsible for environmental preservation

http://www.tanzania.go.tz/environment.html, http://www.tanzania.go.tz/lands.html, http://www.tanzania.go.tz/water.html, http://www.tzonline.org/policies.htm, http://www.cbd.int/countries/profile.shtml?country=tz#status


CITIZEN SUIT PROVISIONS – The Tanzanian Constitution permits any person to seek redress in the High Court for any violation, or likely violation, by any person of any right or duty owed to that person.

http://www.nec.go.tz/publications/constitution.pdf, http://www.nyulawglobal.org/globalex/tanzania.htm, http://books.google.com/books?id=J-SrdFtSuDUC&pg=PA1432&lpg=PA1432&dq=tanzanian+constitution+and+redress+in+courts+of+law&source=web&ots=gntZh8dYD0&sig=3g7jruwXCHuCvDqcqqyow6ILbEE&hl=en&ei=tJSYSeWpJI_ftgeanqS4Cw&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=1&ct=result


CONSTITUTION (1977) – President may proclaim a state of emergency when there is imminent occurrence of danger, disaster or environmental calamity which threatens the

society or part thereof in the United Republic.

http://www.tanzania.go.tz/images/constitutioneng.pdf

http://www.nec.go.tz/publications/constitution.pdf


GOVERNMENT AGENCIES WITH PRIMARY ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESPONSIBILITIES

Division of Environment – environmental policy, planning, and research; coordinates and monitors environmental issues

National Environmental Management Council (NEMC) (1983) – advises government on all technical environmental management matters; enforces environmental regulations

http://www.tanzania.go.tz/environment.html


PROTECTED AREAS

National Parks (12), Game Reserves (7), Forest Reserves, Biosphere Reserves (2),

Ngorongoro Conservation Area (8,300 sq. km) – landscape, wildlife, people and archaeological sites

http://www.tanserve.com/tourism/index_files/parks.htm, http://www.tanzania.go.tz/lands.html, http://www.tanzania.go.tz/naturalresources.html


INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL TREATIES

Party to international agreements relating to Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands, and Whaling.

Signed, but did not ratify Nuclear Test Ban.

Participates in African Convention on the Conservation of Nature

Maintains cooperative wildlife protection agreements with Kenya

http://www.tanzania.go.tz/environment.html http://www.tanserve.com/facts/index_files/enviroment.htm

http://www.tanserve.com/facts/index_files/background.htm


ENERGY PROFILE

Major energy sources are petroleum, hydropower, and coal. Petroleum is imported.

http://www.tanzania.go.tz/energy.html


Greenhouse Gas emissions

Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 3.97 Million Metric Tons (2005)

http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/country/country_energy_data.cfm?fips=TZ


SOURCES FOR FURTHER INFORMATION:

National Website of the United Republic of Tanzania - http://www.tanzania.go.tz/

Tanzania On-line (A Gateway to Information on Development Issues in Tanzania) -http://www.tzonline.org/

Tanzania’s Leading Search Engine & Directory - http://www.tanserve.com/